University of Hawaii, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources. Butternut and Green-Striped Cushaw varieties are practically immune to attack, but Hubbard squash is highly susceptible. Immunity of Dacus cucurbitae to Attack by Certain Parasites of Dacus dorsalis. The latter is less cost effective. 97-53. Hence, development of varieties as: immune (no damage), highly resistant (1–10%), resis- resistant to melon fruit fly is an important component tant (11–20%), moderately resistant (21–50%), suscepti- of integrated pest management (Panda & Khush 1995), ble (51–75%) and highly susceptible (76–100%). Comparative Survival and Demographic Statistics for Wild Oriental fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly, and Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Papaya. [6], Between 1947 and 1952 in Hawaii, natural enemies of fruit flies were introduced. It is almost flat on the ventral surface, and more convex on the dorsal. Completion of the life cycle normally requires one to two months under warm conditions, but may be five to six months under cooler conditions. The melon fly. The venter has fusiform areas on segments 2 through 11. Total life cycle completes 14-34 days depending on weather conditions. In the Indomalayan realm, the melon fly is considered the most destructive pest of melons and other related crops. 315. Melon fly is a prohibited plant pest under the Biosecurity Act 2014. In the Indomalayan realm, the melon fly is considered the most destructive pest of melons and other related crops. It can be found throughout most of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, some island groups in the Pacific. Melon fly is one of the most unpleasant pests of any gourds. Phillips VT. 1946. The melon fly has a wide host range but is a serious pest of cucurbits (cucumbers, pumpkins, squash, and melons). Toxicants in baits applied both to refugia of the fruit flies and sprays applied to crops have been used. Insects not known to occur in the United States. 391. 34. pages 2–44. Damage – Feeding in colonies, adults and nymphs pierce vines with their needle-like mouthparts. The principal leafminer species in the southwest include L. trifolii and L. sativae. The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from 1) oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts 2) feeding by the larvae, and 3) decomposition of plant tissue by … The female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs. The leafminer adults are small, shiny black and yellow flies with a bright yellow triangular spot on the upper thorax bet… Possibly due to these treatments, the density of the wild melon fly population just before the onset of mass release was estimated to be about 507o of the peak density5>. Melon Fly Damage on Cucumber. The melon fly was first found in California in 1956 and has been captured sporadically over the years, but all infestations have been successfully eradicated. The larvae live and feed in pumpkin fruits, adults drink the juices of the same plants. Lockwood, S. 1957. What does it look like? Eggs of the Baluchistan melon fly (BMF) are able to survive harsh winter conditions. They feed on the juices of decaying fruit, nectar, bird feces, and plant sap. At maturity, the larvae drop from the plant and burrow two to three cm beneath the soil to pupate. J. Econ. Soc. Findings of melon fruit fly control survey and its integrated management, 1996/97. Adult bodies range from white to yellow and have characteristics similar to houseflies. Barrix Recommendation Barrix Catch Veg Fly Trap. Nevertheless, melon fly damage in these sequential plantings was >30% (Mau et al. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 51: 181-205. Agric. In the Pacific it is established in Bougainville Islands, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Mariana Islands, New Britain, New Ireland and Papua New Guinea. The Fruit Fly Exclusion and Detection Programs protect the health and value of American agricultural resources threatened by the establishment of exotic fruit fly populations. This bait insecticide is sprayed on broad leaf plants that serve as refugia for melon flies. The female has a short tube at the end of its body through which the pointed ovipositor can be extruded. 27(3): 367-378. 1959. Foote RK, Blanc FL. Anonymous. How many to use : 6 Traps / acre or 15 traps / hectare. Nature of damage ; Among the various species, D.cucurbitae commonly known as melon or pumpkin fruit fly is most widely distributed species on vegetables. Marsden, D. A. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain fruit flies. [1], In the United States, it was the first tephritid fruit fly species established in Hawaii. Larval tunnels provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause fruit to rot. Identification of fruit fly larvae frequently intercepted at ports of entry of the United States. Call Us – 0030 693 7459267; Email – info@eurodriver.gr; Call Now Eggs are often somewhat longitudinally curved. In fruit fly control programs, and in particular, where male an- nihilation alone was the method of choice (Cunningham and Suda 1986, Steiner et al. Larvae tunnel through the flesh as they feed and allow decay to easily spread through the fruit. The anterior spiracles are slightly convex in lateral view, with relatively small tubules averaging 18 to 20 in number. Dacus dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). DAMAGE The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from 1) oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts 2) feeding by the larvae, and 3) decomposition of plant tissue by invading secondary microorganisms. California Department of Agriculture. Loose-Leaf Manual of Insect Control. Fruit flies damage many crops, including melon, citrus, mango, apple and some other oil seed crops such as sunflowers, etc. Melon Fly on Cucumber. melon fly, and BRP, an insecticide, along with poisoned protein hydrolysate, an auractant for fruit flies, by spraying. Hence the present investigation explores. The egg is elliptical, about 2 mm long, and pure white. 1994. Damage a melon, a water-melon, cucumbers, a pumpkin, wild cucumbers. Peiping (Beijing) 5: 93-138. Indian Horticulture. If melon fly were to become permanently established in California, the commercial growers of these commodities would experience direct damage due to crop losses, additional production costs due to increased pesticide use, and loss of markets due to quarantine restrictions. When to Use : To be used at the stage of flowering till harvesting stage. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). Bull. problems associated with the application of. It is established on the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion, and the Seychelles. Last instar larvae range from 7.5 to 11.8 mm in length. The larva is a cylindrical-maggot shape, elongated, with the anterior end narrowed a somewhat curved ventrally. Life history Eurodriver Motorcycle, Buggy, Quad Rental Crete – Rent a bike Crete. Lall, B. S. 1975. ... of this pest. Anonymous. The adult melon fly is approximately the size of a house fly, about 6 to 8 mm long. Since the discovery of the oriental fruit fly in Hawaii a number of methods have been … The melon fly is native to tropical Asia and has spread to Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Guam, Kenya, Tanzania and the Mauritius. One is to use a protective covering to wrap the fruit while it develops. Distinctive characteristics include its wing pattern, its long third antennal segment, the reddish yellow dorsum of the thorax with light yellow markings, and the yellowish head with black spots. Distribution: The melon fl y is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacifi c Islands. It rarely attacks cucumbers and melons. Studies on the Biology and Control of Fruit Fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQ. Fla. Dept. Hawaiian Entomol. Melon flies also lay eggs in tender plant tissues such as terminals, unopened flowers, young stems, roots, and seedlings. The fly is active in hot and hibernates as pupae or adults during the cold months. The adult oriental fruit fly is somewhat larger than a housefly, about 8 mm in length. Report suspected melon fly to Biosecurity Queensland immediately on 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline on 1800 084 881. Hill, D. S. 1983. Melon Fly, Oriental Fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly. The fruit fly is a major agricultural pest infesting crops such as gourds (the host fruits of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae)) and citrus fruit (the host fruits of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)). reducing the melon fly damage (Srinivasan, 1991). The other is to use baited traps. The eggs are deposited in cavities created by the female using its sharp ovipositor. Fruit that has been attacked may be unfit to eat. Like most fruit flies, it can cause a significant amount of damage to fruit and makes infected fruit unmarketable. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. pp. The maggots after harching feed on pulp of the fruits and rendered them unfit for human consumption. No. About 70 % of fruit fly species are considered to be major agricultural pests. 1957. Ent. damage inflicted by melon fly and also residual. Some fruit flies are also beneficial; 15 species have been used as biological control agents for weedy species Asteacea. Nishida, T and H. A. Bess. Eggs are generally laid in young fruit 2-4mm deep, but are also laid in the succulent stems of host plants. The wings are clear. Melon fly infestation . Melon fly (Bactocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly belonging to the family Tephritidae. Oxon, UK. Melon Fruit-Fly and Its Control. They are strong fliers and usually fly in the mornings and afternoons. 1917. Chaetodacus cucurbitae Infestation Rate of Papaya by Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Relation to the Degree of Fruit Ripeness. 83(4): 1344-1349. This often leaves the interior of the fruit rotten. Description: Liriomyza leafminers can readily cause economic damage to melons, particularly in fall plantings. Larval feeding causes the most damage to the fruits of the host plant. What is the Damage Caused? Melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a small fruit fly that attacks a range of fruit including melon, citrus and papaya. India. 69 p. USDA, Survey and Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, Agriculture Research Service. Species: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) Common Name: Melon fly Damaging Stage: Maggots/larvae Crops Afected: Cucurbits, solanaceous and legumes Characteristics Damage: Attacks flowers, stem and fruits Eggs are deposited inside the fruits and tissues around the oviposition site become necrotic. When temperatures are more comfortable, they feed on nectar, decaying fruit, sap, and bird poop. Melon Fly on Cucumber. The invasion of melon flies is a serious threat to the cultivation of any pumpkin culture. 9. Zool., Natl. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular 303: 1-2. Hawaii Agric. They are pollinators/visitors of some orchids, especially Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) species, that release floral fragrance containing either raspberry ketone or zingerone as floral attractant and reward[2], The melon fly is native to India, and is distributed throughout most parts of the country. Cont. Hardy DE. Entomology Circular No. pre-harvest management practices to reduce fruit fly populations. )),: 367-368. In Hawaii, the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, causes damage to crops such as squash, melon, cucumber, and tomato. The bugs prefer squash, pumpkin, cucumber, and melon, in that order. ARS-Research. Larvae of fruit flies IV. Cooperative Economic Insect Report 9 (19): 343-368. The maggots (larvae) are creamy-white, legless and attain a length of 10 mm. Strumeta cucurbitae (Scott Bauer, D1034-1). While feeding, they inject a toxic substance into plants. The melon fly in Hawaii. Development period from egg to adult ranges from 12 to 28 days. Eggs are minute cylinders laid in batches. chemicals, there is a need to look at alternative. The melon fly can attack flowers, stem, root tissue, and fruit. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 491: 1-64. It has been introduced and established in the African countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cóte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. Decay organisms can enter the fruit, leaving the interior of the fruit a rotten mass and making it unfit for consumption. 1949. 1953. 2003a,b). Gupta and Verma (1982) reported that fenitrothion (0.025%) in combination with protein hydrolysate (0.25%) reduced fruit fly damage to 8.7 % as. University of Florida (Gainesville), MS thesis. The melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly of the family Tephritidae. 1989. Agropec. Inst. During that time, thirty-two species and varieties of parasite were released. The body is mostly orange-brown with a faint black T-shaped mark on the abdomen, and the clear wings have a large brown spot at the tip and a brown stripe at the hind edge in addition to lighter striping along the leading edge of the wing and near the base. Mature attacked fruits develop a water soaked appearance. 1979. Sanidad. The melon fly is a dangerous pest of melons and gourds. Proteinaceous liquid attractants in insecticide sprays is an effective method of controlling melon fly populations. strategies. Adult: The adult melon fly is 6 to 8 mm in length. Internac. The puparium ranges in color from dull red or brownish yellow to dull white, and is about 5 to 6 mm in length. Eggs are hatched into maggots which live and develop inside the Biological Invasions, 15(4), 759-773. doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0324-8. 1989. Journal of Agricultural Research (Washington) 38: 489-504. In Hawaii, it has caused serious damaged to melon, cucumber and tomato crops. Adults later emerge from these puparia and dig their way out of the soil. Studies on the Ecology and Control of the Melon Fly Dacus (Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). Damage (Back to Top) In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. The fruit flies or Tephritidae of California. Dacus cucurbitae Coq. This serves two benefits, damage to the fruit and the chance of any larvae making it through quarantine is lessened. The 2008 gross California production value of the recorded hosts of melon fly was over $4.5 billion. Berg GH. Dacus cucurbitae Reg. Green CT. 1929. The most commonly attacked crops are cantaloupe, cucumber, watermelon, melons, squash, and gourds. In hot weather they rest on the undersides of leaves and in shady areas. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. The source of nutrition for both larvae and adult individuals (adults) of this insect are pumpkin plants. Pesticides. Exp. [7], When the braconid parasitoids Fopius arisanus or Pysttalia fletcheri were used, and attacked both melon fly eggs and larvae at the same time, suppression of development was as much as 56%.[8]. Acad. Larvae of Fruit Flies. [1], Melon flies use at least 125 host plants. 1990. A classification of some larvae and puparia of the Tephritidae (Diptera). Melon fly damage During the heat of the day, adult melon flies rest on the shady undersides of leaves. Station Tech. Zeugodacus cucurbitae. 32(3): 10-11. 1988. 36 p. Chu HF. They are major pests of beans, bittermelon, winter melon, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini.[4][5]. In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. YOU CAN HELP Working together we can keep these pest… Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. Heppner, J. Two benefits, damage to fruit and the chance of any larvae making it through quarantine is...., unopened flowers, young stems, roots, and fruit areas and flattened!, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture & human Resources 69 USDA! [ 6 ], melon flies ports of entry of the host plant on 9 November 2020, at.! Diptera, Tephritidae ) ketone and zingerone are optimal are pumpkin plants a rotten mass and making it for. Use at least 125 host plants major agricultural pests and O. Rahman heat of the plant and burrow two three... ; 15 species have been used as biological Control agents for weedy Asteacea... 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Parasites of Dacus dorsalis sprays applied to crops have been used as biological Control agents for weedy Asteacea. Stage of flowering till harvesting stage is considered the most destructive pest of melons other. Are hatched into maggots which live and feed in pumpkin fruits, adults the! Jaiswal JP, Gurung TB, Pandey RR, 1997 is lessened our county depending on conditions. Last edited on 9 November 2020, at 00:41 & human Resources, winter, and loss market! Larvae ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) from white to yellow and have characteristics to! Harris E, Vargas R, Harris E, Vargas R, E.. Detection Operations, plant pest Control Division, Agriculture Research Service usually fly in eggs... Immediately on 13 25 23 or melon fly damage the Exotic plant pest Control Division, Research! In Hawaiian fruit flies and sprays applied to crops have been used as biological Control agents for weedy Asteacea! 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